STATUS OF SERUM ZINC LEVELS IN FEMALES WITH THYROID DYSFUNCTION
Background: Low serum zinc levels have been connected to thyroid function in more than one way, but to date there is still arguments about the association between zinc deficiency and thyroid disease, particularly in females. The aim of this study was to assess status of serum zinc levels in a sample of females with thyroid dysfunction in comparison with those of normal thyroid function and to ascertain its association with thyroid hormone levels.
Patients and Methods: A case control study was conducted on 225 females referred to the Endocrine Unit for definitive diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and 100 females with normal thyroid function, serves as a control group.
Results: The results revealed that the serum zinc levels were significantly lower in
Hypothyroid females(62.2±16.3µg/dl) as compared to hyperthyroid (80.5±13.9µg/dl) and controls (86.2±13.2 µg/dl) with p=0.001.The prevalence of severe zinc deficiency (<50 µg/dl) was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid females (25.0%) as compared to hyperthyroid females (3.0%), p-value of 0.01, whereas none of the controls had severe zinc deficiency. In the hypothyroid group, positive correlations of zinc were observed with FreeT3 and FreeT4 (p=0.007, p<0.001, respectively) and a negative correlation was observed with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), p<0.001.In the overall studied subjects, negative correlation was also found for zinc with TSH (p< 0.001).We did not observe a significant correlation ofFT3, FT4 and TSH with zinc in controls or in hyperthyroid group.
Conclusions: Decreased serum zinc levels may lead to hypothyroidism in females. Efforts to increase zinc status in this group may help correct abnormal levels of thyroid hormones.
2. Mullur R, Liu YY, Brent GA. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism. Physiological reviews. 2014;94(2):355-82.
3. Baltaci AK, Dundar TK, Aksoy F, Mogulkoc R. Changes in the serum levels of trace elements before and after the operation in thyroid cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;175(1):57-64.
4. Sherwan f. Salih. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Duhok.Duhok Med J 2015; 9 (2): 52-59.
5. Betsy A, Binitha MP, Sarita S. Zinc deficiency associated with hypothyroidism: an overlooked cause of severe alopecia. Int J Trichol. 2013;5(1):40.
6. Ertek S, Cicero AF, Caglar O, Erdogan G. Relationship between serum zinc levels, thyroid hormones and thyroid volume following successful iodine supplementation.Hormones (Athens). 2010;9(3):263-8.
7. Rabeh NM, El-Ghandour HA. Effect of Iron, Zinc, Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplementation on Thyroid Hormones in Rats with Hypothyroidism.International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2016;5(3):201-10.
8. de Lima LF, Júnior FB, Simões MV, Navarro AM. Heart failure, micronutrient profile, and its connection with thyroid dysfunction and nutritional status.Clinical Nutrition. 2018;
9. Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc. Biochemical genetics 2017;55(3):223-33.
10. Sinha S, Kar K, Dasgupta A, Basu S, Sen S. Correlation of Serum zinc with TSH in hyperthyroidism. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016;7(1):67.
11. Ruiz-Núñez B, Tarasse R, Vogelaar EF, JannekeDijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA. higher Prevalence of “low T3 syndrome” in Patients With chronic Fatigue syndrome: a case–control study. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2018;20;9:97.
12. Kouidhi S, Clerget-Froidevaux MS. Integrating Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Hypothalamic Control of Metabolism: Crosstalk Between Nuclear Receptors. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):2017.
13. Adedapo KS, Sonuga AA, Afolabi AO, Amosu A. Interaction of Some Selected Trace Elements with Thyroid Hormones in Patients with Goiter in Ibadan, Nigeria.JSRR.2014;2876-83.
14. Aziz MA, Habil NY, Diab AK. Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Regulating Serum Hormonal and Inflammatory Status in Hypothyroidism Patients.Medical Journal of Babylon. 2016;13(2):347-53.
15. Mullur R, Liu YY, Brent GA. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism. Physiological reviews. 2014;94(2):355-82.
16. Chakera AJ, Pearce SH, Vaidya B. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2012;6:1.
17. Hussen KR, Al-Timimi DJ.Zinc deficiency among women during child bearing age. Duhok Med J 2016:81-89.
18. Al-Timimi DJ, Al-Sharbatti SS, Al-Najjar F. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. Saudi medical journal. 2005;26(11):1777-81.
19. Moncayo R, Kroiss A, Oberwinkler M, Karakolcu F, Starzinger M, Kapelari K, Talasz H, Moncayo H. The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma. BMC endocrine disorders. 2008;8(1):2.
20. Li H, Yuan X, Liu L, Zhou J, Li C, Yang P, et al. Clinical evaluation of various thyroid hormones on thyroid function. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014.
21. Federige MA, Romaldini JH, Miklos AB, Koike MK, Takei K, Portes ED. Serum selenium and selenoprotein-P levels in autoimmune thyroid diseases patients in a select center: a transversal study. Archives of endocrinology and metabolism 2017;61(6):600-7.
22. Hanif S, Ilyas A, Shah MH. Statistical Evaluation of Trace Metals, TSH and T 4 in Blood Serum of Thyroid Disease Patients in Comparison with Controls.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;183(1):58-70.
23. AL-Timimi DJ. Marginal zinc deficiency: a significant but unrecognized public health problem in Iraq. Duhok Med J 2009;3(1)1-3.
24. AL.TimimDJ ,Al-Omeri W, ClorMM.Zinc in pregnancy: relation to course and outcome .Journal Fac Med Baghdad 1998;40(2):143-148.
25. Roba KT, O’Connor TP, Belachew T, O’Brien NM. Concurrent iron and zinc deficiencies in lactating mothers and their children 6–23 months of age in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.European journal of nutrition. 2018;57(2):655-67.
26. Cinar V, Akbulut T, Sarikaya M. Effect of Zinc Supplement and Weight Lifting Exercise on Thyroid Hormone Levels. Indian J PhysiolPharmacol. 2017;61(3):232-6.